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heavy metals

  • Graphene oxide-packed micro-column solid-phase extraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of lead (II) and nickel (II) in water samples

    Graphene oxide-packed micro-column solid-phase extraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of lead (II) and nickel (II) in water samples

    A b s t r a c t

    A sensitive and simple method has been established for simultaneous preconcentration of trace amounts of Pb (II) and Ni (II) ions in water samples prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. This method was based on the using of a microcolumn filled with graphene oxide as an adsorbent. The influences of various analytical parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent amount, eluent type and volume, flow rates of sample and eluent, and matrix ions on the recoveries of the metal ions were investigated. Using the optimum conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 7–260 and 5–85 μg L−1 with detection limits (3Sb) of 2.1 and 1.4 μg L−1 for lead and nickel ions, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 replicate determinations of 50 μg L−1 of lead and nickel ions were 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively. The preconcentration factors were 102.5 and 95 for lead and nickel ions, respectively. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was also determined. The method was successfully applied to determine the trace amounts of Pb (II) and Ni (II) ions in real water samples. The validation of the method was also performed by the standard reference material.

    Authors

    Hamid Shirkhanloo, Aisan Khaligh, Hassan Zavvar Mousavib and Alimorad Rashidi

    Results and discussion

    Based on the preliminary experiments, the retention of Pb (II) and Ni (II) ions on a GO-packed micro-column was chosen for preconcentration of the metal ions and their subsequent determination by FAAS. Hence, in order to obtain quantitative recoveries of Pb (II) and Ni (II) ions with good sensitivity and precision, the presented SPE system was optimised for various analytical parameters.

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  • The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    A b s t r a c t

    In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refi nery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.

    Authors

    Hamid Shirkhanloo, Seyed Alireza Hajiseyed Mirzahosseini, Nasrin Shirkhanloo, Seyyed Ali Moussavi-Najarkola and Hadi Farahani

    Sample collection

    In this study, heavy metals (As, Ni, Co, V and Hg) in agricultural soils, waters and leafy edible vegetables in ten different locations in Tehran’s industrial region were evaluated.

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